CBDC (Central Bank Digital Currency) is the generic term for digital currencies issued by central banks. A distinction is made between the following categories:
These are essentially the current fiat currencies (physical banknotes and coins) which are converted into a digital currency. Issued by the central bank of the countries and distributed by the commercial banks – a well-known concept, therefore, where citizens do not have a direct account with the central bank.
CBDC directly from the central bank
This is a concept that the Riksbank is dealing with (project phase), which differs significantly from the “traditional CBDC concept”: every citizen would have an account with the central bank where they could deposit and withdraw their digital money.
Could be just one currency, e.g. the PBOC project, or a little more unconventional as the concept Mark Carney spoke of (a possible new lead currency composed of several currencies).